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Organic Chemistry - Aldehydes Ketones & Carboxylic Acid
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Organic Chemistry - Aldehydes Ketones & Carboxylic Acid
Video: .mp4 (1280x720, 30 fps®) | Audio: aac, 48000 Hz, 2ch | Size: 15.7 GB
Genre: eLearning Video | Duration: 109 lectures (13 hour, 19 mins) | Language: English

Complete Chemistry for Engg and Medical Entrance Exam Preparation. ( IIT JEE Main | Advanced | BITSAT | SAT | NEET etc.)

What you'll learn
Write the common and IUPAC names of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids
Write the structures of the compounds containing functional groups namely carbonyl and carboxyl groups
Describe the important methods of preparation and reactions of these classes of compounds
Correlate physical properties and chemical reactions of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, with their structures
Explain the mechanism of a few selected reactions of aldehydes and ketones
Understand various factors affecting the acidity of carboxylic acids and their reactions
Describe the uses of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids
Basic understanding of chemistry and math's

Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are some of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses. The lower members are more soluble in water because they form hydrogen bonds with water. The higher members, because of large size of hydrophobic chain of carbon atoms, are insoluble in water but soluble in common organic solvents. Aldehydes are prepared by dehydrogenation or controlled oxidation of primary alcohols and controlled or selective reduction of acyl halides. Aromatic aldehydes may also be prepared by oxidation of (i) methylbenzene with chromyl chloride or CrO3 in the presence of acetic anhydride, (ii) formylation of arenes with carbon monoxide and hydrochloric acid in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, and (iii) cuprous chloride or by hydrolysis of benzal chloride. Ketones are prepared by oxidation of secondary alcohols and hydration of alkynes. Ketones are also prepared by reaction of acyl chloride with dialkylcadmium. A good method for the preparation of aromatic ketones is the Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatic hydrocarbons with acyl chlorides or anhydrides. Both aldehydes and ketones can be prepared by ozonolysis of alkenes. Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition reactions onto the carbonyl group with a number of nucleophiles such as, HCN, NaHSO3 , alcohols (or diols), ammonia derivatives, and Grignard reagents. The α-hydrogens in aldehydes and ketones are acidic. Therefore, aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen, undergo Aldol condensation in the presence of a base to give α-hydroxyaldehydes (aldol) and α-hydroxyketones(ketol), respectively. Aldehydes having no α-hydrogen undergo Cannizzaro reaction in the presence of concentrated alkali. Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to alcohols with NaBH4 , LiAlH4 , or by catalytic hydrogenation. The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones can be reduced to a methylene group by Clemmensen reduction or Wolff-Kishner reduction. Aldehydes are easily oxidised to carboxylic acids by mild oxidising reagents such as Tollens' reagent and Fehling's reagent. These oxidation reactions are used to distinguish aldehydes from ketones. Carboxylic acids are prepared by the oxidation of primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkenes by hydrolysis of nitriles, and by treatment of Grignard reagents with carbon dioxide. Aromatic carboxylic acids are also prepared by side-chain oxidation of alkylbenzenes. Carboxylic acids are considerably more acidic than alcohols and most of simple phenols. Carboxylic acids are reduced to primary alcohols with LiAlH4 , or better with diborane in ether solution and also undergo α-halogenation with Cl2 and Br2 in the presence of red phosphorus (Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction). Methanal, ethanal, propanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid are highly useful compounds in industry.
Who this course is for
Parents whose wards are students preparing for Indian Engineering and Medical Entrance Exams
Course content
1 section • 109 lectures • 13h 19m total length

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